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While (according to my understanding) War theroticians have not concluded adequately when a cyber-attack can be answered with the use of kinetic force, especially in the case of non-state actors, a new question emerges:

– When a non-state actor (or even a state one) attacks my Economy, is the use of kinetic (or other) force a justified act of defense?

These days I am reading “Inside Cyber Warfare” (among other things). Chapter 4 (Responding to International Cyber Attacks as Acts of War) is written by Lieutenant Commander Matthew J. Sklerov. It is a rewrite of his 111-page thesis on the subject which is available online:

→ “Solving the Dilemma of State Responses to Cyberattacks: A Justification for the Use of Active Defenses against States Who Neglect Their Duty to Prevent

Like I said, I have not read the Thesis, but I am reading Chapter 4 from “Inside Cyber Warfare”. It is highly explanatory of the US strategic and military dogmas, including running cross-border operations against enemies who are non-state actors.